Diabetes mellitus| Learn A to Z About Diabetes Today

Diabetes is also known as diabetes mellitus. It is often defined as a systemic disease that result in increased sugar levels in the bloodstream (high blood glucose). ‘Or’ Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use it effectively.

Types of Diabetes(Diabetes mellitus)

There are two main types of diabetes (although there are some other less common types). Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (or type 1 diabetes) is also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

This means that a person with diabetes needs to take insulin injections. This type of diabetes usually develops before the age of 40, and it is the result of the pancreas not producing enough insulin.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (or type 2 diabetes) is also called non insulin dependent diabetes. This means that a person with diabetes does not need insulin injections. Most people with this type of diabetes are over 40 years old, but it can also develop in young people.

Some less common type of Diabetes (subtype of diabetes)

Gestational diabetes Mellitus

It is a condition that occurs in women during pregnancy. It is a form of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, when the body does not properly process sugars from food. Gestational diabetes can be mild or severe, and it can lead to serious complications for both mother and baby if left untreated.

There are two types of gestational diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Type 2 is caused by a combination of genetics, lifestyle factors, other medical conditions, and weight gain during pregnancy. The most common cause of gestational diabetes is being overweight or obese during pregnancy.

If left untreated, gestational diabetes can lead to high blood sugar levels for the mother and low birth weight for the baby. This can increase the risk of health problems later in life, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.
Some signs of gestational diabetes include excessive thirst or urination, frequent nausea or vomiting (especially in between meals), blurred vision or headache, and fatigue.


Prediabetes is a condition where blood glucose levels are elevated, but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Prediabetes can be caused by a variety of factors including obesity, aging, and a sedentary lifestyle.

It is important to keep blood glucose levels under control if you have prediabetes in order to reduce your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.
Stronger blood glucose control reduces the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes by 58% and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease by 39%.


  • The main symptom of diabetes mellitus is high blood glucose levels.
  • Some of the common signs of diabetes include :-
  • Increased thirst
  • Increased hunger
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent urination
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Skin infections (due to poor blood flow).


Diabetes can be caused by a problem with the body’s hormone regulation, or it can be due to a problem with how insulin works in the body.

One of the most common causes of diabetes is obesity. Obesity is a big risk factor, because it is linked to higher levels of insulin resistance. If you are overweight, you are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin therapy. Patients with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin to replace the insulin that their bodies are not producing.

People with type2 diabetes mellitus are treated with lifestyle changes, such as diet, exercise and weight loss. People with diabetes also need to monitor their blood glucose levels, and they may need additional medication. There are various types of drugs available for the treatment of diabetes.

Risk factors of diabetes mellitus

If you are overweight, you are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. If you have a family history of diabetes, you are also at greater risk. People with high blood pressure, high cholesterol or a family history of heart disease are also at a higher risk of developing diabetes.

Complications of diabetes mellitus

complication of diabetes(complication of diabetes type 1 & complication of diabetes type 2) both are included:

  • Cardiovascular disease: In people with diabetes who also have other cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure or obesity, heart attack and stroke are more likely to occur.
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED): diabetic erectile dysfunction may result from vascular disease or ED caused by psychological factors.
  • Decreased libido: (low sex drive): Finally, there is an increased risk of developing
  • Diabetic retinopathy:(damage to the retina) may cause blindness.
  • Diabetes can cause several types of end-organ damage: including diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and autonomic neuropathy (damage to nerves controlling automatic body functions such as heart rate and sweating).
  • Diabetic gastroparesis: (a condition that causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea) due to damage to the nerves that control gastrointestinal motility.
  • Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: it occurs when there is damage to nerves from poor circulation in the extremities caused by high blood glucose levels.
Insulin for Diabetes mellitus


To prevent diabetes, you should keep a healthy weight, exercise regularly, and eat a healthy diet. If you are at risk of diabetes (especially if you have a family history of diabetes), you should monitor your blood glucose levels regularly.

What we learnt so far

In this article we will learn everything we need to know about diabetes, Nonetheless, we have so far learnt about risk factors, treatments, prevention, causes, types etc. in the basics of diabetes.

Now we will try to know about type 1 diabetes in detail and how it differs from type 2 diabetes through FAQs. You will also learn about what life is like with diabetes so you can better understand how this condition might impact you or someone you love.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is type 1 diabetes ?

People with type 1 diabetes cannot make any insulin because their bodies have destroyed almost all of their beta cells. These cells produce insulin in response to blood glucose levels. Without these cells, blood glucose levels rise and the body can’t use sugar for energy.

Instead, it breaks down fat for energy, which causes a spike in the production of acids called ketones.

What are the 7 common symptoms of diabetes?

  • Weight gain or weight loss: People with diabetes might notice a change in their body weight, or they might find that they have gained or lost weight without trying to do so. This is often due to either increased or decreased food intake as a result of changes in appetite.
  • Frequent urination: This is often caused by high blood sugar levels, which lead to dehydration. Some people may also experience polyuria, a condition in which the body releases more than the normal amount of urine.
  • Increased thirst: When blood sugar levels rise, the body produces more fluid to dilute the blood. Since the kidneys cannot distinguish between different types of fluid, they may begin to reabsorb water from the blood.
  • Blurred vision: As blood sugar levels rise, the fluid surrounding the eyes increases, causing swelling. The retina is also sensitive to changes in blood sugar levels, so it is affected by this swelling.
  • Skin infections: When blood sugar is high, the skin becomes more susceptible to infection. It may also become red and appear scaly.
  • Feeling tired: High blood sugar levels cause the body to use more energy, which can leave a person feeling tired. This is especially common in people with type 1 diabetes.
  • Increased hunger: When blood sugar is high, you can notice increased hunger and you will feel the desire of eating something much more frequently than normal.

What is the main cause of diabetes(Diabetes mellitus)?

Diabetes is a condition that occurs when the body can’t use glucose properly. Glucose is a type of sugar found in food that provides the body with energy. If a person has diabetes, glucose isn’t able to get into the cells of the body where it is used for energy. Instead, glucose builds up in the blood.

Diabetes(diabetes mellitus) is caused by two main things: genetics and lifestyle. Each person has a certain risk of developing diabetes based on their genes. This risk can be increased by lifestyle factors, such as being overweight.

How diabetes is diagnosed?

The symptoms of diabetes, such as increased urination and blurred vision, can be caused by other conditions. Therefore, it is important for someone to see a doctor if they think they may have diabetes.

Diabetes is diagnosed with a blood test to see if a person has high blood sugar. If a person has a higher-than-normal blood glucose level, they likely have diabetes. This can be confirmed with a second test that measures insulin levels.

Can diabetes cause headaches?

A headache may be one of the first signs that someone has diabetes. When glucose builds up in a person’s bloodstream, it can reduce the amount of oxygen being delivered to the brain. This may cause a headache.

Diabetes can also cause high blood pressure, which is associated with headaches. Although diabetes is a serious condition, and frequent headaches are a common symptom, it is possible for the two to be related.

Journey of Diabetes to kidney failure?

Over time, diabetes(diabetes mellitus) can cause major damage to the organ system of the body. The kidneys, eyes, heart and nervous system can be severely affected. Kidneys are responsible for removing excess glucose from the blood and excreting it in urine, which means that with diabetes, the kidneys are being overworked.

Diabetes(Diabetes mellitus) is the leading cause of kidney failure in the United States today. It’s not one specific condition that causes kidney failure, but a combination of things contributes towards kidney failure.

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

While both types of diabetes mellitus develop when the body cannot properly use glucose, there are different disorders and have different causes, symptoms, treatments, and long-term outcomes.

The main difference between the two is who is likely to get it. Type 1 is mostly diagnosed in childhood, while type 2 is often diagnosed in adulthood.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes, and research is ongoing to find ways to prevent the disease from progressing.

While type 2 diabetes occurs mostly due to systemic diseases like high blood pressure, HIV infections etc. Being overweight is also a main cause.

Warning signs of Diabetes(Diabetes mellitus)

Many people with diabetes don’t realize they have the condition until it’s too late because there are no obvious signs. The most common symptoms are thirst, frequent urination, hunger, fatigue, and blurred vision.

While these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, they also can be a sign of diabetes. If you experience symptoms like these, talk to your doctor. You can also perform a home blood test to find out if your blood sugar levels are high. If they are, you may have diabetes.

How to treat diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is treated by carefully managing blood sugar levels through diet, exercise, and medications. It is possible to live a healthy life with diabetes by following a treatment plan that includes healthy eating, regular exercise, and taking prescribed medication.

Diabetes treatments include eating a healthy diet, regular workout, and taking medication. A healthy diet for diabetes means eating a variety of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products. There are many different diet types for diabetes, such as Mediterranean, vegetarian, and diabetic diet.

Diabetes diet

How to prevent diabetes?

Because type 1 diabetes can’t be prevented, preventing type 2 diabetes is the only way to reduce its prevalence. If you are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, you can reduce that risk by making healthy lifestyle changes. These changes include eating a diet low in saturated fat, getting regular exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight.

What happens after diabetes is diagnosed?

Once the doctor has made a diagnosis, they’ll provide information on the types of diabetes, treatments, and lifestyle modifications necessary to manage the disease. They may also refer the person to a diabetes educator who can provide detailed information and answer questions. The doctor may also suggest that the person be tested for other diseases, such as high cholesterol, that often occur with diabetes.

What to do if you have diabetes?

If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, it’s important to work with your doctor to develop a treatment plan that fits your life and health goals. Make sure you are eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and monitoring your blood sugar.

It can be challenging to manage diabetes, but with the help of a doctor, you can take control of your health and live well with diabetes. If you notice any of the warning signs of diabetes, make an appointment with your doctor. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or delay complications.

What to expect after diagnosis?

After diagnosis, your doctor will likely order regular blood tests to monitor your blood sugar levels. You may also be referred to a dietitian who can provide further guidance on healthy eating, or a diabetes educator who can help you make important lifestyle modifications.

What happens if you have undiagnosed diabetes?

Having undiagnosed diabetes can result in complications and even death if untreated, so it’s important to get tested if you notice any of the warning signs. If you test positive for diabetes, you’ll be referred to a dietitian and diabetes educator for further guidance. Your doctor will also likely prescribe medication to help control blood sugar levels.

How to live with diabetes?

Once diagnosed with diabetes, it’s important to live a healthy lifestyle and make treatment a priority. With proper care and management, you can prevent diabetes complications and live a long and healthy life. Be cheerful and positive, do not let diabetes dictate the terms of your life, you are way bigger than diabetes.

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What is the most common type of diabetes mellitus?

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and accounts for 90-95% of all cases. It occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels.
It’s often caused by problems like obesity, inactivity, age, family history and other factors.
People with type 2 diabetes are at much higher risk for heart disease and stroke.
Type 2 diabetes can be treated through diet and exercise.
There’s no cure yet, but there are treatments that can help, like pills or insulin injections.

What is diabetic neuropathy(diabetes neuropathy)?

Diabetic Neuropathy is a type of chronic pain which develops due to high blood glucose levels. Symptoms typically include numbness and tingling in the hands or feet; burning, pain, or tightness in the arms, legs, or torso; and weakness in the arms or legs.

Diabetes Neuropathy may be mild or severe, and there are no treatment options that can cure it. However, a number of treatments can help relieve symptoms and prevent complications. One way to manage neuropathy is by keeping blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible.

This will help protect nerve function and reduce the risk of complications. Other interventions include rest and physical therapy. A good diet may also help improve symptoms by improving glucose metabolism.

What is the Normal blood sugar level?

Normal blood sugar levels for adults :

Fasting blood sugar range: for non-diabetic person 70-100 mg/dl (3.5-5.6 mmol/ L) is considered normal. Whereas for diabetic person it is 80-130 mg/dl or (4.4-7.3 mmol/L).

After 2 hours of consuming meal: for non-diabetic person – less than 140 mg/dl (7.9 mmol/L) is considered normal. whereas for diabetic adult it should be less than 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/L).

Normal blood sugars for kids (0-5 years)

100 to 180 mg/dl is considered normal.

Note – Blood sugar levels more than 190 mg/dl suggests prediabetic condition and blood sugar level more than 200 mg/dl is suggestive of diabetes.

what does hypoglycemia means ?

There are two types of low blood sugar: hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.
Hypoglycemia occurs when your blood sugar level falls to very low levels. This can be caused by skipping meals or not eating enough carbohydrates. If you have diabetes and take insulin, you may experience hypoglycemia more often.

There are many symptoms of low blood sugar, including fatigue, hunger, dizziness and confusion. You may also experience irritability, numbness or tingling in your hands or feet, vision changes, shaking and slurred speech. You should never ignore these symptoms!

What does hyperglycemia means ?

Hyperglycemia occurs when your blood sugar level rises above normal levels. This can be caused by eating too much or exercising excessively. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as insulin.

What is diabetic foot?

Diabetic foot is a medical condition in which a diabetic person’s foot becomes ulcerated or infected. It is an inflammation of the skin and soft tissue found near the bottom of the foot.

Diabetic foot can occur at any time during the course of diabetes, but it most often occurs during the early stages when blood sugars are elevated, particularly in people who have poorly controlled diabetes. This is because high blood sugar level causes tissues to be damaged and release substances that can trigger an inflammatory response.

If left untreated, diabetic foot can lead to serious complications such as amputation and cellulitis (a serious bacterial infection). The risk for developing diabetic foot is greater among people with diabetes having a poor blood sugar control.
Diabetic foot is typically treated with antibiotics and elevation of the affected limb, as well as regular care to prevent infection.

Final words

Diabetes changes your life, but it doesn’t have to change your life for the worse. With the right care, diet, and lifestyle, you can manage Diabetes. it is a serious health condition that can lead to serious complications if it is not treated correctly. People with diabetes need to monitor their blood glucose levels and follow a healthy diet and exercise plan. Anyone can develop diabetes, but by following a healthy lifestyle you can reduce your risk of developing diabetes. If you notice any of these symptoms, be sure to visit your doctor as soon as possible, so you can get the treatment you need and reduce the risk of serious complications.

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